【会议通知】中国农村人力资本对长期经济增长的挑战

2020-11-07

129次浏览

主题

中国农村人力资本对长期经济增长的挑战(Rural China’s Human Capital and Challenges to the Economy’s Long-term Growth)

报告人

Scott Rozelle教授,美国斯坦福大学

主持人

西南财经大学经济与管理研究院 许冰副教授

时间

2020年11月12日 (周四)上午 10:30-13:00

地点

腾讯会议,会议ID:379 734 438

嘉宾简介

Scott Rozelle教授,美国斯坦福大学弗里曼-斯波格利国际问题研究所(Freeman Spogli Institute,简称 FSI)高级研究员、中国高端外国专家项目专家、中国农业科学院农业政策研究中心国际专家组主席。其研究领域有:农业资源及政策分析、贫困经济学等,论文多次在顶尖学术期刊发表。包括“Science”、“Nature”,“American Economic Review”、 “The Journal of Economic Literature”等。2007年,获得中国国务院颁发的“国际科学技术合作奖”,2008年,获得温家宝总理授予的“友谊奖”,是外国人在中国可获得的最高荣誉。

内容简介

This talk will describe the current level of human capital in China and seeks to identify a number of education-related obstacles that may prevent (or slow down) the nation’s economy from transitioning to high-income status. In our work we will show how one of the main challenges facing China on its march to become a high-income country is the low quality of human capital in the overall labor force (measured as the share of individuals between 25 and 64 years old with at least a high school education). Relying on recent census-based data from OECD for the rest of the world and using data from the 2015 Micro-Census for China, we show that the low levels of education of China’s labor force is really a problem that has its roots in the past (in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s). 

In recent years (since 2000) China has been investing heavily in education as shown by the increasing the share of youth, including rural youth, attending high school. Despite this recent effort to raise the nation’s human capital, the education system still faces several challenges in trying to provide high-quality education for all youth.First, if China is going to get all youth into high school, they must figure out a way to overcome the (still) relatively low rates of participation by rural students (especially those in poor rural areas). Second, because a significant share of rural youth is attending vocational education and training schools (VET schools), there is concern that many schools in this recently expanded system (especially those in rural areas) cannot deliver quality education. Finally, even if China’s government can succeed in getting all rural youth into high school, and even if it can improve the quality of rural VET schools, there is an even more fundamental problem. In the final part of the presentation I will seek show that many rural students may be unprepared for the rigors of a demanding high school curriculum due to poor early childhood development outcomes when they are ages 0-3 (at home in rural villages and other rural communities); 3-6 (during their preschool years); and 6-12 (in primary schools).

本讲座将描述中国目前的人力资本水平,并试图找出一些与教育有关的障碍,这些障碍可能阻止(或减缓)中国经济向高收入状态的转变。在研究中,将展示中国在迈向高收入国家的过程中面临的主要挑战之一是人力资本在整体劳动力中的素质偏低(按25岁至64岁之间的至少是高中毕业个人比例衡量)。依靠OECD最近针对世界其他地区进行的人口普查数据,并使用2015年中国微型人口普查数据表明,中国劳动力的低教育水平确实是一个根源于过去的问题。(在1970年代,1980年代和1990年代)。

近年来(自2000年以来),中国一直在教育方面进行大量投资,这表明,包括农村青年在内的年轻人进入高中的比例不断增加。尽管最近为提高国家的人力资本做出了努力,但教育系统在试图为所有青年提供高质量的教育方面仍然面临着一些挑战。首先,如果中国要让所有年轻人上高中,必须找出一种方法来克服农村学生(尤其是贫困农村地区)的(仍然)相对较低的参与率。其次,由于很大一部分农村青年正在接受职业教育和培训学校(VET学校),因此,人们担心,这个最近扩展的系统中的许多学校(尤其是农村地区的学校)无法提供优质的教育。最后,即使能够成功地使所有农村青年进入高中,提高农村职业教育与培训学校的质量,也可能存在一个更为根本的问题。在演讲的最后部分,研究将企图表明,根本的问题在于许多乡村学生可能是由于0至3岁时(在乡村和其他乡村的家中);3-6岁(在学龄前);和6-12岁(在小学)阶段的儿童早期发展成果不佳而无法适应要求苛刻的高中课程。